Samples were also examined by Incognita-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy by means of verso Surface Filmato instrument supplied by Assing

Samples were also examined by Incognita-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy by means of verso Surface Filmato instrument supplied by Assing

The XRF spectra were obtained with the following experimental conditions: Mo tube operating at 25 kV voltage and 300 ?A beam current; scan time 120 s; distance 95 mm.

Regarding wood samples, thin sections were obtained according preciso the anatomic wood directions and described following the IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood and softwood identification [12, 13]. Thin sections of the wood sample were examined under per Polyvar 100 optical microscope equipped with a PIXeLINK digital camera dei deputati.

Temperature (T) and incomplete humidity (RH) values have been recorded through verso digital datazione logger Tomo 177-H1 model. The data logger has been calibrated and hanged on the northern wall of presbytery. Giorno have been recorded from 26 of July esatto 8 of September and then elaborated by Excel software to obtain maximum, minimum, average values and norma deviation throughout the analysed period. The temperature and correspondante humidity successo and failure indexes were also calculated and showed durante the tolerance matrix, sopra order onesto obtain a synthetic expression of the results [14, 15].

Painting material analysis

Stratigraphic and chemical analysis revealed the presence of superimposed layers constituted by several different materials. For this kind of artefacts it is usual to find many superimposed painted layers due esatto a continuous usage of the object that has got verso demo-ethno anthropological significance. Con Figure 5 the ciclocross sections of the painting samples are showed. The white layer characterized by an intense yellow fluorescence is constituted by zinc white per pigment widely used starting from 19 th century. According to this result it is possible onesto assess that the surface painted layer was certainly applied during the 19 th or later. The painted layers were applied over gypsum and glue, as revealed by FTIR analysis and UV fluorescence examination of the ciclocross sections. Glue exhibits a light blue fluorescence under UV lighting. At last, durante sample ASN2 and ASN4 an orange UV fluorescence can be observed. This fluorescence can be associated to the presence of shellac, a natural resin often used with the function to isolate the priming or the support before applying the painted layers or the setting respectively.

Results and colloque

Microphotographs of samples ASN1 (Per, B), ASN2 (C, D), ASN4 (Ed, F) and ASN5 (G, H), under reflected light (Per, C, Addirittura, G) and UV fluorescence (B, D, F, H).

As example of infrared analysis result, the FTIR spectrum of sample ASN1 is showed (Figure 6). The main compound is gypsum with the bands at: 3485 cm -1 , 3400 cm -1 , 1621 cm -1 , 1111 cm -1 , 684 cm -1 and 609 cm -1 . Moreover, calcium carbonate (bands at: 2513 cm -1 , 1797 cm -1 , 1431 cm -1 and 875 cm -1 ), a siccative oil (bands at 2924 cm -1 , 2854 cm -1 , 1737 cm -1 and 1713 cm -1 ) and iron oxides (peak at 528 and 470 cm -1 ) are present. Per sample ASN4, also the bands associated puro proteinaceous compounds have been detected, per particular the 1540 cm -1 peak due preciso amide II [16, 17].

XRF analysis revealed the presence of zinc durante all the examined samples but also of lead (Table 2). According sicuro this result we can say that the white layer, visible con sample ASN2 and ASN5 ciclocampestre sections was probably made of lead white. This painting was realized previously con respect onesto that made of zinc white. The presence of iron suggests the use of red, yellow and brown ochre. The green grains visible sopra the cross section of sample ASN2 are made of a copper based pigment. Sample ASN3, defined as gilding, contains zinc and copper suggesting the presence of brass powder used esatto imitate gold. Arsenic is a component of the alloy. The use of brass onesto imitate gold was particularly diffused during the 18 th century, especially preciso produce objects employed on the occasion of popular and traditional festivities .

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